Epileptic Syndromes

Classification of Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndromes*
1. Localization-related (focal,local,partial) epilepsies and syndromes
   1.1 Idiopathic (listed in order of age of onset)
         1.1.1. Bening childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spike
         1.1.2. Childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms
   1.2. Symptomatic
   1.3. Cryptogenic


2. Generalized epilepsies and syndromes
   2.1 Idiopathic (listed in order of age of onset)
        2.1.1. Benign neonatal familial convulsions
        2.1.2. Benign neonatal convulsions
        2.1.3. Benign myoclonic epilepsy in infancy
        2.1.4. Childhood absence epilepsy (pyknolepsy)
        2.1.5. Juvenile absence epilepsy
        2.1.6. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (impulsive petit mal)
        2.1.7. Epilepsy with grand mal (generalized tonic-clonic) seizures on awakening

   2.2 Cryptogenic or symptomatic (listed in order of age of onset)
        2.2.1. Benign neonatal familial convulsions
        2.2.2. Lennox-Gastaut syndrome
        2.2.3. Epilepsy with myoclonic-astatic seizures
        2.2.4. Epilepsy with myoclonic absences

   2.3 Symptomatic
        2.3.1. Non-specific etiology
2.3.1.1. Early myoclonic encephalopathy
2.3.1.2. Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy with suppression burst
2.3.1.3. Other symptomatic generalized epilepsies not defined above

        2.3.2. Specific syndromes
2.3.2.1. Epileptic seizures may complicate many disease state.Under this heading are included diseases in which seizures are a presenting or predominant feature.

3. Epilepsies and syndromes undetermined whether focal or generalized

   3.1. With both generalized and focal seizures
      3.1.1. Neonatal seizures-excluded from G/L
      3.1.2. Severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy
      3.1.3. Epilepsy with continuous spike-waves during slow wave sleep
      3.1.4. Acquired spileptic aphasia (Landau-Kleffner syndrome)

   3.2. Without unequivocal generalized of focal features
All cases with generalized tonic-clonic seizures in which clinical and EEG findings do not permit classification as clearly generalized or localization related, such as in many cases of sleep-grand mal are considered not to have unequivocal generalized or focal features

4. Special syndromes
   4.1. Febrile convulsions
   4.2. Isolated seizures or isolated status epilepticus
  4.3. Seizures occuring only when there is an acute metabolic or toxic event

Idiopathic: No underlying cause other than a possible hereditary predisposition.

Symptomatic: The consequence of a known or suspected disorder of the central nervous system.

Cryptogenic: A disorder whose cause is hidden or occult. Cryptogenic epilepsies are presumed to be symptomatic, but the aetiology is not known.

Modified From: *Proposal for revised classification of epilepsies and epileptic syndromes. Commission on Classification of and Terminology of the International League Against Epilepsy. Epilepsia 1989;30:389-99

 
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